Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The Weaknesses of TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ads Advertisements today seem to pull people in all sorts of directions. Some are more reserved in their presentation, while others seem to force a product or an issue upon its audience. I realize theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all trying to do the same thing, which is to sell something. But along with these products they also seem to want it to tie into something else; that with this product, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be popular. Basically, the weaknesses in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s ads are not in their style, but in their substance and the way it is presented. My first example deals with a brand of shoes, in particular, Skechers. To pull in potential buyers, the ad shows buyers a group of typical teenagers. Mind you, these are kids with perfect complexion and the perfect fashion sense. All of the models are easy on the eyes and nothing theyÃ¢â¬â¢re wearing is offensive or flashy. There is also the sense that these are pretty respectable kids and that they are all popular. Tying all this in with the fact that they are wearing Skechers implies that wearing them makes you popular. The problem with this is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not true and it provides a false image for kids to emulate. And I think this is what causes kids to feel insecure about what they wear, and eventually, who they are. The second advertisement deals with Everest mint gum. It shows a very cold, bright landscape with large mountains in the background and a dark patch of ice in the foreground. In the foreground is a scoreboard with the names Ã¢â¬Å"shirtsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"skinsÃ¢â¬ on it, and is then followed by the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Some like it coldÃ¢â¬ . While the ad is trying to be somewhat humorous or witty, it also tries to imply that Everest mint gum is essentially as cold as Mount Everest. Though it tries to convince its audience that it is the most refreshing gum out there, it makes it very hard to believe in that being the case. The worst part is that the company is almost guaranteeing its prod... Free Essays on The Weaknesses Of Today's Ads Free Essays on The Weaknesses Of Today's Ads The Weaknesses of TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ads Advertisements today seem to pull people in all sorts of directions. Some are more reserved in their presentation, while others seem to force a product or an issue upon its audience. I realize theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all trying to do the same thing, which is to sell something. But along with these products they also seem to want it to tie into something else; that with this product, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be popular. Basically, the weaknesses in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s ads are not in their style, but in their substance and the way it is presented. My first example deals with a brand of shoes, in particular, Skechers. To pull in potential buyers, the ad shows buyers a group of typical teenagers. Mind you, these are kids with perfect complexion and the perfect fashion sense. All of the models are easy on the eyes and nothing theyÃ¢â¬â¢re wearing is offensive or flashy. There is also the sense that these are pretty respectable kids and that they are all popular. Tying all this in with the fact that they are wearing Skechers implies that wearing them makes you popular. The problem with this is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not true and it provides a false image for kids to emulate. And I think this is what causes kids to feel insecure about what they wear, and eventually, who they are. The second advertisement deals with Everest mint gum. It shows a very cold, bright landscape with large mountains in the background and a dark patch of ice in the foreground. In the foreground is a scoreboard with the names Ã¢â¬Å"shirtsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"skinsÃ¢â¬ on it, and is then followed by the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Some like it coldÃ¢â¬ . While the ad is trying to be somewhat humorous or witty, it also tries to imply that Everest mint gum is essentially as cold as Mount Everest. Though it tries to convince its audience that it is the most refreshing gum out there, it makes it very hard to believe in that being the case. The worst part is that the company is almost guaranteeing its prod...
Friday, November 22, 2019
3 More Rules for Producing Consistent Content 3 More Rules for Producing Consistent Content 3 More Rules for Producing Consistent Content By Mark Nichol Here are a handful of tips that will help you produce clean, clear writing regardless of topic, intent, and audience. 1. Insert or Omit Hyphens as Needed Adjectival phrases that precede a noun, such as Ã¢â¬Å"free rangeÃ¢â¬ before chicken, generally take hyphens, though if the phrase is a standing phrase documented in dictionaries (as is Ã¢â¬Å"high schoolÃ¢â¬ ), leave the hyphen out when using the phrase to modify a noun (Ã¢â¬Å"high school studentÃ¢â¬ ). Adverbial phrases such as Ã¢â¬Å"newly discoveredÃ¢â¬ never take hyphens, but those with flat adverbs (those lacking the -ly ending), such as Ã¢â¬Å"well earned,Ã¢â¬ always do before (but not after) a noun. Most prefixes are attached directly to the root word (antiwar, cosponsor, deactivate, neoconservative, preapproved, reorganize, and so on), though there are exceptions (for example, when the root word is a proper name or when the first letter of the prefix is an i and the first letter of the root word is, too). When in doubt, look it up. When not in doubt, look it up anyway. A few compounds remain hyphenated. (Light-year and mind-set are two of the most common.) Learn these exceptions to the rule that compound nouns are either open or closed. 2. Minimize Jargon On a related note, when using specialized language, make sure that all content producers in your organization are in line with the definition and application of the terminology (and, again, publicize within the organization and document it) and that external consumers of your content understand it, too. But take care not to burden the reader with a heavy concentration of jargon; carefully manage a balance of authoritative language with clarity. Also, avoid using acronyms and initialisms unless readers are familiar with them or they are introduced in every document, on every web page, or in every email message- spelled out on first reference, followed by the parenthesized abbreviation. If feasible, provide a glossary of terms and abbreviations. 3. Avoid Adjective Stacks On a related note, avoid strings of adjectives that modify nouns; for example, reword Ã¢â¬Å"information technology risk management mitigation effortsÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"efforts to mitigate risks in managing information technology.Ã¢â¬ Find related tips in this post. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Style category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Fly, Flew, (has) FlownFlied?Acronym vs. InitialismWriting a Thank You Note
Thursday, November 21, 2019
How relevant is Machiavelli's Prince for today's political leaders - Essay Example The book can be used as a manual for the politicians who yearn to win and stay in power as in his literature, Machiavelli guides a prince on the manner to act towards his enemies and applying both force and fraud in the course of war2. Regardless of the perceptions people have concerning politics, the book goes straight to the reality of how things work in what Machiavelli considers as effectual truth. It demonstrates that allies who exist in politics at home and across boarders are never really friends. Among the principles that are championed by Machiavelli is that leaders are always supposed to cover up their real intentions, make sure they cannot be predicted, and regularly act in a manner that is against mercy, faith, humanity and religion, so that they may be able to preserve the state, making ,MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s name synonymous with the tyrants who are cunning. When the dismal perception of Machiavelli in regard to humanity is understood, it becomes easy to appreciate the ethical universe that he operates in as he begins his discussion that touches of virtues that a prince should have by discarding them immediately. According to him, virtues do not have utility and are simply products of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination. In MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, truth is a factor of the effect or outcome associated with a specific action from the dictatorÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective but not any intrinsic or rigid standard of value and obvious liberty or freedom is not among them. This creates the definition of the term effectual truth and Machiavelli defines himself as a relativist who adjusts to the situation why favoring dictatorship. This is the same kind of discourse that has been associated with the liberals as well as democrats; it has also been seen and heard in the self-proclaimed conservatives as well as the republicans. The introduction of a new approach in relation to the traditional political science by
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Interpersonal Conflict in the Film Hitch - Essay Example In most cases and situations that involve love, interpersonal conflict is inevitable. This usually results to an increased antagonism and misunderstanding between the characters. As observed in the movie, the escalation of emotional tensions resulted to a misunderstanding. The viewer would already know by then that Hitch was really trying to help his client Albert, a nice, socially awkward guy, to get closer to Allegra. On the other hand, Sara is insistent and believes that Hitch is just trying to get women laid by his own clients. It should also be taken as a factor that prior to Sara knowing that Hitch was a date-doctor, both of them were dating as well and were developing a serious relationship. The unmasking of HitchÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation to Sara exacerbated things between them. The problem was that both Hitch and Sara never really saw things from each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. Both of them knew and felt that they were correct in their own right. Sara, for the most part, initiall y did not want to understand HitchÃ¢â¬â¢s side of the story. On HitchÃ¢â¬â¢s part, he wanted to show that his methods of dating would work on him, as well as it did with his clients. When their confrontation came, they communicated based on their passion, and not much with their rationality or logic. As a solution to the conflict, both of them could have just agreed to meet privately instead of publicly. In this way, they could both disclose honestly and openly their side of the story and situations that involve love.
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Challenges Faced by Companies Entering Foriegn Markets Essay 1. INTRODUCTION Companies move into foreign markets for various reasons. In certain cases, it is towards achieving a required sales volume. In other instances, it might be a bid to increase brand awareness. Other companies go into foreign markets to re-invigorate sales after their products have gone through their life cycle from inception to decline in home markets. Regardless of reason, moving into a foreign market tends to portend great opportunities for companies, particularly if it entails serving products in an emerging economy that has recently become wealthy enough to afford such products; or selling a new but needed product or service to a developed and wealthy market. However, in foreign markets, challenges are as numerous as opportunities. Some sources of challenges are discussed below. a) Socio-Cultural Differences Companies tend to adopt practices that were successful in home markets without adapting these models to fit the cultural inclinations of markets entered. When large cultural differences exist between the home country and that entered, such practices may result in ineffective business development and partnerships. An example is the now well known Chinese practice of longer meetings in the bid to become acquainted with potential partners, compared to the Anglo-American practice of brief to-the-point meetings. Adopting either approach in a market more inclined to the other, will no doubt hinder business development. Language differences are other examples of socio-cultural differences that posit challenges to companies entering a foreign market. Language differences make effective and efficient communication difficult between companies and local stakeholders. A light example is the Chevrolet Nova which was selling far below expectation in Latin America. Executives of General Motors could not understand why this was so until it was brought to their attention that, in Spanish Ã¢â¬Å"no vaÃ¢â¬ means Ã¢â¬Å"it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t goÃ¢â¬ . b) Differences in Levels of Bureaucracy Ã¢â¬â Efficiency of Procedures and Processes Company registration, the opening of a bank account, getting import permits, obtaining required licenses, etc, all reflect the ease of doing business in a country as well as the levels of bureaucracy that exist in that country. For companies used to relatively low levels of bureaucracy, entering a market with significantly higher levels of bureaucracy may result in unrealistic project plans translated into unachieved implementation. c) Differences in Availability of Skilled Human Resources Availability of a particular skill in a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s home market may result in presumptions about the availability of the same skill in the market entered. 4This occurred in Nigeria in 2001 when the first set of GSM licenses were given to foreign companies MTN and Econet (both from South Africa). At the time, neither entrant foresaw a dearth of local skilled manpower. This ended up costing both companies an unprecedented increase in salaries and other expenses associated with bringing in expatriate workers. The challenge of sourcing skilled labour in foreign markets is further exacerbated when quotas exist on the number expatriates allowed into the country entered despite the dearth of local skill. d) Differences in Infrastructure Prevailing infrastructure affects how companies operate. Prevailing transportation infrastructure affect how companies move goods and personnel for service delivery; market infrastructure affect how players on a given value chain relate with one another; and the level of basic infrastructure such as power and water affect cost allocations and management. For companies entering a foreign market, failure to take into account the infrastructural base of the market entered may result in ineffective and or inefficient operating plans and processes. e) Legislation Favouring Local Companies Unsupportive legislation is another major source of challenges to companies entering foreign markets. Countries tend to enact laws intended to protect or enable local industries. These legislations take many forms. They could be outright levies on foreign businesses; or banning of the activities or management structure of foreign companies; or may be through more indirect means such as required licenses or permits to operate; cumbersome registration processes or permit procedures. 4 David Ogah, Ã¢â¬Å"Expatriates, some semi-skilled, take over even menial jobs from NigeriansÃ¢â¬ , The Guardian Newspaper Nigeria, December 21 2011, http://www.ngrguardiannews.com/index.php?option=com_contentview=articleid=71436:expatriates-some-semi-skilled-take-over-even-menial-jobs-from-nigerians-catid=72:focusItemid=598, accessed August 2012. 3. NIGERIAN E-COMMERCE E-commerce is the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. E-commerce uses the World Wide Web at one point in the transactions life-cycle, although it may include a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices and telephones. - The major customers of e-commerce businesses are individuals living in major urban centres in Nigeria, notably Lagos, the commercial capital; Abuja, the political capital; and Port Harcourt, an oil rich city in Southern Nigeria; as these cities tend to house the highest number of internet users in Nigeria. 5Nigeria has over 47 million internet users, with a majority of them living in the urban cities. In the mid 2000s, a couple of e-commerce companies were launched in Nigeria. They barely survived. The reason for their demise, or in other cases, stagnant growth, was the difficulty of getting customers to embrace the e-payment options available in Nigeria at that time. This difficulty was due to known cases of fraud that occurred over the insecurity of Interswitch, the only e-payment platform available in Nigeria at that time. However, with the entrance of major card payment solutions like Master card and Visa card in 2006, coupled with the improved security features of Interswitch, the industry experienced an increase in the number of Nigerians executing online payments.6(online transactions grew by 25% in 2011) Prior to the end of the first quarter of 2012, the Nigerian e-commerce scene had been somewhat lukewarm as the only vibrant players were Dealdey.com and Wakanow.com. At the beginning of the second quarter, the sector experienced an increase in the number of e-commerce company in Nigeria, amongst which were Rocket InternetÃ¢â¬â¢s Sabunta.com and Kasuwa.com. The long-term outlook for the e-commerce industry in Nigeria is positive, with analysts predicting a significant increase in new entrants. The implementation of the use of mobile money in Nigeria by the Central Bank of Nigeria is expected to accelerate the development of the e-commerce industry in Nigeria, as mobile money allows a greater number of individuals engage in electronic transactions. Currently, the Nigerian e-commerce industry has slightly over 70 companies, though the industry is yet to have an estimated dollar value. Companies in the sector are categorized into: a. Fashion Retailers These are online fashion shops that primarily sell shoes, clothes and other fashion accessories. Major players in this category are Sabunta.com, Kamdora.com, Taafoo.com and 3stitches.com. The clear leader among them is Sabunta, despite the fact that the platform was launched less than 3 months ago while most other players have been in the scene for significantly longer. Sabunta offers a wider range of international brands and possesses a more integrated logistic supply chain. This makes them more capable of serving customers all around Nigeria than competitors. b. Travel and Tourism These are primarily online companies that sell travel and tour packages. The clear market leader is Wakanow.com with a current turnover of thirty-five million naira (N35 million) per month. Other players in this sector belong to private airline operators e.g. www.fly.arikair.com, www.myairnigeria.com, etc c. Electronic Gadgets and Books These are companies that sell electronic gadgets and books online. The major players in this category are Kasuwa.com and Konga.com. It is however difficult to tell who the bigger player is. Both players are less than 3 months old. Apart from electronics, Konga.com also retails baby and female make-up products. d. Broad Product Retailers Players in this category include group-buying deal sites such as Dealdey.com, Buynownow.com and Buyright.biz. The major player with the largest market share is Dealdey.com. It was launched in 2011 and possesses the most robust group-buying deal site in Nigeria. 2. SABUNTA.COM Sabunta.com is a fashion online retailer that offers a wide range of International and Nigerian fashion brands for sale in Nigeria. Sabunta.com is an e-commerce company owned by Jolali Global Resources Limited, a privately held company in Nigeria, set up and owned by the German Company, Rocket Internet. RocketÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarters is the vibrant centre of Berlin, Europes Silicon Valley, home to a network of 25 international Rocket offices that cover the operations of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s subsidiaries in developed and emerging markets. Rocket Internet is the largest, fastest and the most successful international online venture builder. It currently has over 50 online ventures in 7 continents where they are all playing in the top segments of the market. The primary focus of Rocket is building proven, transaction-based business models in the online and mobile space. The company has been executing this model since 2007 and have created over 100 market leading companies in over forty (40) countries, dozens of which have been exited successfully. The Rocket Internet Company is best known for cloning successful online business in the US in other countries where they play at the top of the market. In Europe, RocketÃ¢â¬â¢s Zalando is currently the largest online fashion retailer. Other well known companies owned and operated by Rocket include; Wimdu in France, Zidora in Azerbaijan, Dafiti in Brazil, Mizado in Egypt, Locondo in Japan, The Iconic in Australia and Zando in South Africa. Sabunta.com and Kasuwa.com are RocketÃ¢â¬â¢s operations in Nigeria. Both operate from their headquarters in Lagos, NigerianÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial capital, home to over 10% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s $413 billion GDP. Sabunta.com and Kasuwa.com serve customers around using warehouses in major urban cities. However, Kasuwa.com sells electronic gadgets and books, while Sabunta.com sells fashion items. Sabunta.com provides customers with flexible online platforms to shop for fashion items from the convenience of their homes, and delivers these items at the doorsteps of shoppers. The company provides flexible payment options including bank deposits, online payment, and its innovative payment-on-delivery option, actually first introduced in Nigeria by Sabunta.com. Sabunta.com is young. The company started operations on the 8th of June, 2012 and is currently only three (3) months. Yet it has already become the largest and the fastest growing online fashion retailer in Nigeria, with over a 100 orders per day, The company aims to maintain its positions as the largest and fastest growing in Nigeria, as is being achieved in other countries by other Rocket Internet ventures worldwide. Sabunta.com currently has 71 staff, 24% of whom are foreign nationals. The workforce at Sabunta.com consists of graduates from Ivy league universities in the US and Europe, as well as top talent from Nigeria. Its management team consists of two foreign nationals and a Nigerian. 4. SABUNTA.COM TARGET MARKET The target market for Sabunta.com is NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s upper and emerging middle-class living in major urban cities in Nigeria. The age bracket of the typical Sabunta.com customer is between 18 and 65. This age range constitutes individuals who are capable of buying or making purchasing decisions with regards to fashion items. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s targeted customers are however less than 10% of the mentioned age range, as the company targets individuals with an annual income of not less than N2million ($12,500). SabuntaÃ¢â¬â¢s target market constitutes of individuals who live and work in major urban cities of Nigeria such as Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, Kano, Kaduna, Ibadan, Aba, Warri and Benin. These individuals frequently utilize the internet and various social media platforms to interact with friends, family and colleagues. They are fashion conscious, trendy looking and want to express their personalities with the kind of outfits they wear. They also recognize and wear popular international brands and shop for these brands whenever they or friends and family travel abroad. 5. SABUNTA.COM STRATEGY Having carefully studied the Nigerian e-commerce scene, Sabunta.com concluded that the major problem hindering take-off of e-commerce in Nigeria is the sceptical nature of Nigerians towards online payments. The company responded by introducing the cash-payment-on-delivery option for its customers. Though the company offers regular credit card and online payment options for those who want to do so, the cash-payment-on-delivery option was an ice-breaker: it made sceptical Nigerians participate in online shopping. This enlarged the market of online shoppers, with Sabunta.com being the only company to enjoy the patronage of this new surge in online fashion shoppers. Good performance on the part of Sabunta.com further helped to enforce their dominance. On time delivery, even without having received payment, helped to instil confidence in its target market. To reduce problems associated with deceit and theft, usually by hoodlums posing as customers, Sabunta outsourced its delivery to Red Star Express, a leading Nigerian Franchisee of US global courier brand FEDEX a major courier company that has been in operations in Nigeria since 1992, known for its quality of service, Sabunta.com also introduced various practices that, though standard in mature e-commerce markets, were novel and innovative in the growing Nigerian e-commerce market. These innovations include: a. Free Delivery and Return Policy Prior to Sabunta.com entry, no e-commerce company in Nigeria offered free delivery or allowed customers to return purchased goods. Sabunta.com entered the e-commerce scene offering a nationwide free delivery plan as well as a return policy which allowed customers return goods bought within the first 14 days if they were not satisfied with the condition in which it was delivered. To return goods, customers are allowed to drop the purchased items at any of the 158 Red Star Express offices situated in all the states in Nigeria at their convenience. This reduces the cost which customers incur during the return process. The ability to purchase goods at no extra cost of delivery and to return these goods if dissatisfied at minimal costs make Sabunta.com a provider of high quality at low costs Ã¢â¬â attributes that appeal to the price sensitive and yet quality sensitive Nigerian market. b. International Product Offering Sabunta.com recognizes that its target market constitutes those familiar with and who wear International fashion brands. Consequently, the company partners with sister fashion companies around the world, owned by the parent, Rocket Internet, to offer a large range of international brands over 150 different brands to the Nigerian market. Sabunta.com enhances the display of international products on its site, both those it has in stock as well as those in the stock of its sister companies around the world. This allows the company serve the diverse international tastes of the Nigerian market, and to respond to trends regardless of its current stock. 6. SUCCESS For a company that has been in existence for less than three months in a foreign market, Sabunta.com has been able to achieve a lot of success and has been able to overcome a significant number of envisaged challenges. Sabunta.com successes include: a. Exceeding Projected Revenue Prior to entering the Nigerian market, the management of Sabunta projected revenue of Ã¢â ¬15,000 from about 150 orders in the first quarter of business. This projection was exceeded after the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first month of operations. The company found itself operating in a large market with a greater potential for online products than it had envisaged or planned for. The result was a restructuring of its operations to meet the demand. b. Obtaining Local Supplies Being an online fashion store, the ability to get local suppliers goes a long way in determining the amount of profit made. Local supply eliminates the various cost associated with getting supplies from outside the country Ã¢â¬â [The average mark-up for goods sold on Sabunta.com is 50%]. The Sabunta.com team was concerned about getting high quality local supplies for their business as the number and industry size of local fashion suppliers were not obtainable from official records or research archives. However, the company was pleasantly surprised at the large number of local fashion suppliers resident in Nigeria. The result has been high mark-ups on locally produced and sold products. This has lead to profitability in less time than projected.[Sabunta.com currently makes an average gross profit of 40% while their operating and net profits are still in the negative]. c. Finding Adequate Logistic Providers To ensure timely and accurate nationwide delivery, Sabunta.com required services from delivery firms who possess best practices as well as offer cost-effectiveness as a value proposition. The firm understood that a weak or inconsistent logistics arm (for example due to different qualities of delivery by several logistic partners) will result in negative customer perception. This challenge was overcome through a partnership with Red Star Express Ã¢â¬â a Franchisee of the US international courier and logistics service provider, FEDEX, that has been operating in Nigeria since 1992. Red Star Express knowledge of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s transportation infrastructure aids in its optimal logistics service delivery. Moreover, Red Star Express provides support with more than just delivery and return of goods. It also collects cash from customers who chose to pay in cash upon delivery, and remits these funds to Sabunta. This saves the company costs associated with cash management. d. Recruitment of Required Personnel Another envisaged challenge was availability of skilled local labor. Given the poor state of NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s I.T. infrastructure and sophistication, the company was unsure of the availability of I.T related skill sets to carry out RocketÃ¢â¬â¢s model as practiced in various other markets. The company was however relieved to find competent local talent. Sabunta.com operates with a 100% local I.T team, capable of carrying out functions required by the Rocket model. 7. CHALLENGES Despite Sabunta.com successes, the company faces a myriad of challenges, most of which result from differences between RocketÃ¢â¬â¢s countries of operation and the Nigerian market. Some of these challenges include: a. Challenges Resulting from Socio-Cultural and Socio-Economic Differences Unlike successes gained in recruiting and maintaining local personnel, Sabunta.com has not been able to maintain its international staff. Over seventy percent (70%) of SabuntaÃ¢â¬â¢s international staff who started out with the company left within two (2) months. The reason? Inability to acclimatize to the Nigerian environment with particular regards to the type of readily available food as well as the lack of or the high costs of, basic amenities such as food, water, regular electricity supply, health services, cooking gas, transportation, internet connectivity, etc. Other reasons for the departure of international staff included health concerns. As at August 2012, over 90 percent of international staff who resumed operations with the company (in June 2012) were diagnosed with malaria, a tropical disease most had never experienced. Unanticipated costs and time associated with replacing and training international staff continues to plague Sabunta.com. b. Challenges Resulting from Unavailability of Infrastructure. Being an e-commerce company, Sabunta.com core operations involve the use of the internet. Consequently, the company requires reliable and (preferably) cheap internet connectivity and power. Yet, neither internet connectivity nor power supply exists cheaply or reliably in Nigeria. Nigeria generates and distributes less than 4,000Megawatts barely enough to serve the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s power needs and resulting in frequent power outages. Sabunta.com spends over N640,000 (Ã¢â ¬3,200) per month on diesel to fuel their stand-by generators, and is constantly plagued with this high cost of power. The company also has high internet connectivity expenses N450,000 (Ã¢â ¬2,250) per month for a bandwidth size of 4/4Mbps. Even with such huge sums spent on internet connection, Sabunta.com continues to experience less than optimal services from Nigerian internet service providers. c. Challenges Resulting from Legislation A key component of SabuntaÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is offering a wide range of international brands in Nigeria, using stock held by sister companies around the world. Research and studies of Nigerian importation laws suggested that importation of fashion stock into Nigeria would be relatively easy. This left the company vulnerable to the shock it received when the first set of drop-shipment was seized at the airport by the Nigerian Customs Service (NCS). The NCS claimed that the goods contained items that were contraband in Nigeria. Sabunta responded by removing such items from their offerings fragrance and perfumes.. Notwithstanding its response, Sabunta continues to face ever present threats associated with bans on importation of fashion related items including textile, leather, clothing, and shoes. Nigerian history reveals frequent policy changes and inconsistencies with regard importation of goods into the country, long identified as a major cause of failure of businesses in Nigeria. Another challenge faced by Sabunta from the Nigerian legislation is the restriction placed by the CBN on the sale of Foreign Exchange to companies and individual except for special purposes like the importation and exportation of goods and services and also the payment of services abroad. This meant that Sabunta had to buy foreign exchange at a higher price in the black market to settle all its international staffÃ¢â¬â¢s salary and other payments which were denominated in US dollars.(Official rate is 1$=159Naira as against the black market rate of 1$=163Naira). d. Challenges Resulting from Corrupt Practices. Despite the absence of contraband, SabuntaÃ¢â¬â¢s management continue to experience delays in the release of their consignment by Nigerian Customs officials. Further inquiry revealed that the logistic company they employed (FEDEX) to handle importation of their goods did not have a good relationship with the Customs officials due to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s implemented policy of not offering bribes as is the order of the day. SabuntaÃ¢â¬â¢s management continue to experience and consequently to remain alert to the constant threat of fraudulent and corrupt practices that plaque business in Nigeria. The company continues to face the challenge of local business partners who try to cut corners and deliver less. Prior to partnering with FEDEX, a Nigerian courier company was chosen and partnered with for local delivery. Similar to FEDEXÃ¢â¬â¢s collection and remission of cash, the courier company collected payment from customers on delivery. However, the company frequently fell short of its obligations in terms of timing and amount of cash remitted. The courier company also failed to report accurate figures collected from customers, and till date, owe Sabunta over 40% of payments collected. Sabunta was quick to recognize this problem and swiftly partnered with FEDEX for its logistics services. Nevertheless, other sources of corrupt practices persist especially from small independent service providers. This is particularly so with artisan related services such as plumbing, equipment repairs and office maintenance, and are frequent sources of lost funds or delayed services to Sabunta. 8. SABUNTAÃ¢â¬â¢S FUTURE: THE MERGER Plans are currently being made for a merger with Kasuwa, Rocket InternetÃ¢â¬â¢s other company in Nigeria, also launched in June 2012, to form Jumia. The merger is expected to result in the biggest e-commerce retailer in Nigeria a one-stop shop for all products related to fashion and electronic items. The new website, Jumia.com, will offer a wider variety of international brands, using strategies currently employed by Sabunta. Jumia is intended to provide benefits associated with scale such as discounts and bargaining power (in relation to suppliers), while addressing current challenges faced by both companies. They include: a. Staffing: The merger is expected to reduce the number of required staff. This will result in the reduction of salary expenses and will result in the need for fewer international staff. In other words, international staff who have acclimatized to Nigeria from both companies may continue to provide required services to Jumia without the need to recruit and retain new staff. b. Office Space: The merger is expected to result in shared office space at a cost smaller than the combined cost of Sabunta and KasuwaÃ¢â¬â¢s current office cost. c. Fueling and Power: Similar to the effect on office space, the merger is expected to result in fueling and power costs that will be smaller than the combined current cost of both companies current fueling and power needs. d. Internet Connectivity: More than just reduction in costs, the merger is expected to result in JumiaÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to purchase larger bandwith sizes directly from internet providers in South Africa, Europe, and North America. This will address the unreliability of internet connectivity currently faced by Sabunta and Kasuwa. e. Repair and Maintenance: It is expected that the larger Jumia will be able to partner with large and reliable providers of office and equipment repairs thus eliminating small service providers who have corrupt or unreliable practices. 9. RECOMMENDATIONS 11Doing a proper market research and analysis When entering a foreign market, it is recommended that a firm carry out proper market research and analysis on that market prior to entry. Top on the list is an environmental analysis that needs to be taken also. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, and it can exert an influence. There are also Internal forces which are controllable forces upon which the management to adapt to. 12Form Strategic Alliances When entering a foreign market, it is recommended that a firm forge strategic alliance to enable them get the following * Great synergy with the partnering local company. * Opportunity to access assets that are not readily available in the market. * Access to larger market and technology for small companies. 11 Jusuf Zekiri and Biljana Angelova, Factors that Influence Entry Mode Choice in Foreign Markets, European Journal of Social Sciences Ã¢â¬â Volume 22, Number 4 (2011), http://www.eurojournals.com/EJSS_22_4_12.pdf, accesses August 2012. 12 Mihaela Belu, Strategies of Entering New Markets, The Romanian Economic Journal, http://www.rejournal.eu/Portals/0/Arhiva/JE%2027/JE%2027%20-%20Belu%20Caragin.pdf, accessed August 2012. Appendix 1 Mobile Money In NigeriaMobile money as the name implies is the transfer of monetary value from one personÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile phone to another. It has been made waves and affected commerce greatly in certain parts of eastern Africa where it was launched in 2009. In Nigeria, the CBN (Central Bank of Nigeria), granted license to 11 mobile money operators in 2011. The CBN rolled out the Mobile money campaign in Lagos State, Nigeria commercial nerve center in January 2012, and planned launching it around the federation by 2013.The CBN also put in place some incentives for using the Mobile money services, by placing charges for Bank cash transactions above 500,000 for individuals and 1million naira for companies.| Appendix 2 Economics of Lagos StateLagos State is the commercial nerve centre of Nigeria. Located in the western part of Nigeria, it is home to over 18million people and has over 2,000 industries. 65% of the countrys commercial activities are carried out in the state. Two of the nations largest seaports -Apapa and Tin-Can Ports are located in Lagos State.| Appendix 3 Income Distribution of the Nigeria Population in 2010 Nigeria Population in 2010-156,051,000 (Source: International Monetary Fund 2011 World Economic Outlook) This report shows the distribution for seven groups within the Nigerian Population in 2010. Percentage of population in income bracket of 0-500 PPP Dollars Ã¢â¬â55.68% Percentage of population in income bracket of 500-1000 PPP Dollars-28.22% Percentage of population in income bracket of 1000-2500 PPP Dollars- 14.61% Percentage of population in income bracket of 2500-5000 PPP Dollars- 1.17% Percentage of population in income bracket of 5000-10000 PPP Dollars- 0.17% Percentage of population in income bracket of 10000-20000 PPP Dollars- 0.05% Percentage of population in income bracket of 20000+ PPP Dollars- 0.1% Source-Marketline analysis based on information from National Statistical Organization
Thursday, November 14, 2019
All about jack in the lord of the flies The opening chapter begins with two boys, Piggy and Ralph, making their way through the jungle. We learn, through their dialogue, that they had been travelling in an airplane with a group of British school children. The plane had presumably been shot down and crashed on a an island in the Pacific. It is hinted that the rest of the world is at war, and that most of it has been destroyed by nuclear attacks--possibly explaining that the children were being evacuated. A storm has come and gone, washing the wreckage away. Ralph and Piggy meet and revel at the prospect that they are alone on a tropical island with no adults. They make their way to the beach where they find a large conch shell. Using the shell as a horn, Ralph summons any other children that may be on the island. They begin to come from the jungle and Piggy tries to take names. Along the beach two marching files of black-clad children approach. This is the first we see of Jack Merridew (who, oddly enough is the only child, besides Percival, whose last name we will learn). Piggy is immediately singled out by the group and made fun of. The children do not like him and never will. Being children, and at first thinking that survival is a game to be played and that rescue is inevitable, they decide to vote for a chief "to decide things." It is obvious the only two contenders are Jack and Ralph. Ralph is voted in; he had possession of the conch--already magical in quality to those present--and seemed the most able. Jack's black-clad choir are designated as hunters upon Jack's insistence--already revealing his need to hunt and kill. Ralph's first decision as chief is to send a party out to investigate whether or not they are really on an island. Himself, Jack, and Simon leave to scale the mountain. As they climb the pink granite, they take time to have fun and roll a large boulder off the edge to watch it be destroyed "like a bomb." This need to destroy begins with this innocent rock-rolling and will eventually culminate with the killing of a sow, Simon, Piggy and the hunting of Ralph later in the story. They reach the summit and indeed discovery they are on an island, apparently uninhabited. A new friendship developes between Ralph and Jack. They savor the "right of domination," and Jack comments about how they will have fun and hunt "until they fetch us." Jack believes rescue is inevitable and these thoughts will contribute to his
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
On my new years and Christmas vacation started off bad but towards the end it became good. I had a lot of fun spending time with my family to be honest. We ate to much like Golden Coral , Cookies and milk , and The Christmas dinner. On Christmas Eve night we had the cookies and milk once you but the cookies in your mouth they were so moist soon as they touch the tip of your tongue. On Christmas we went to golden corral and it seem like they add more food in the buffet to be honest. For some reason it was many types of smells. When we went to the mall, and soon as I walked in the mall aroma of the mall smelled like Topsy. On new years it seem like it was like a ghost of fireworks walking up and down through the streets. In the house there was a smell of a vanilla candle that really smelled. Out of all of the incredible smells that I had taken in there was a bad smell awaiting for me and that was the smell of chitlins, wooo that smell is nothing nice. Thankful my mama knows has to keep that awful smell down. When the day seems long I would lie in my comfortable bed. I was able to go over to one of my cousinÃ¢â¬â¢s house which was a cool thing to get away from the house. I would just lie there and pet on the dogÃ¢â¬â¢s soft furrier coat. Once that was over back to the home front it was good to see my little brother. I gave him a hug and a rub on his curly soft hair. While on break the sight of the snow was amazing. Just watching it comes down and hitting the ground was a pretty sight. Then to watch some of the kids out playing making snowmen was a great sight also. What wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a great sight was seeing the news and watching how people were wrecking their cars. After, seeing all that pretty snow the sight is not a good look now itÃ¢â¬â¢s dirty looking Listening to the good music and hearing laughter filled my whole vacation. Watching my family sit down talking and playing cards was great. It was nice seeing everyone getting along was good laughter to my heart. Just having family together over my break bring all the laughter this world can give. .
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Theme is a big idea we take away from a story after reading it. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Risk Tick DavitÃ¢â¬ by Rudyard Kipling, the primary theme of the story is the Idea of good versus evil. Above all, Risk's character represents good, and the cobras In the story represent evil. In Dalton, another possible theme for this short story could be courage versus fear. By and large, the story contains action and dialogue that helps us determine what the author wanted to reveal about mankind. Body Paragraph 1Risk = Good Explain each characteristic of Risk's through summarizing and quotations. Protective courageous loyal Kipling develops the character of Risk to represent the good in our world. Though Risk is somewhat of an underdog, he demonstrates protectiveness, courage, and loyalty. Risk's protectiveness Is evident at the beginning of the story when he went to bed with Teddy, the young boy. He was awake on the pillow as Teddy was sleeping. Teddy's mother didn't like it, because she thought Risk might bite Teddy.But Teddy's ether explains, Ã¢â¬Å"He Is safer with that little beast than If he had a bloodhound to watch him. Ã¢â¬ Rural was motivated to protect the family because he wanted to live with them. Courage was a trait Risk showed several times throughout the story, but when Nag came into the house through the sluice, he became very frightened when seeing the size of the big cobra. At that point, Risk began to reason and ask himself questions about what he should do. Then he says to himself, Ã¢â¬Å"It must be the head, the head above the hood; and, when I am once there, I must not let go.Though he was afraid, he showed courage and never gave up even during the toughest battles. When Rural Interacted with Dare, he discovered that the tailboards were miserable because one of their babies fell out of the nest and Nag ate him. Risk demonstrated loyalty to his friends by standing up to Nag, the big black cobra, and asking him, Ã¢â¬ Do you think It Is rig ht for you to eat fledglings out of a nest? Ã¢â¬ This loyalty helped him gain hero status with Dare and his wife. Body Paragraph 2 Anglia = Evil selfish 1 OFF determined Body Paragraph 3Alternate claim Courage vs.. Fear Risk = courage Schnauzer = fear Conclusion: Kipling used the theme of good versus evil to help us think about what this means for mankind. When we demonstrate protectiveness, loyalty, and bravery we make life better for others not Just ourselves. If we are selfish and threatening, and our only goal is survival, then we aren't contributing and making the world a better place. In conclusion, we learn that our focus in life should be to think about others before we think of ourselves in order to make a difference in the world.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Movies Based on Dean Koontz Books Dean Koontz is one of the most prolific suspense writers alive. It is no surprise, then, that many of Koontzs books have been adapted into movies. Here is a complete list of Dean Koontz movies by year. Dean Koontz Film Adaptations 1977 - The Passengers aka The Intruder (1979 video release) This was adapted from the novel Shattered, which Koontz wrote under the name of K.R. Dwyer. It was filmed in France and Italy and released in French. The original title was Les Passagers, and it was also released on video in the US as The Intruder.1977 - Demon SeedÃ Based on the novel of the same name, it starred Julie Christie and Fritz Weaver as a couple whose super-computer Proteus IV gets a little too familiar with them.1988 - Watchers Based on the novel, boy (Corey Haim) meets dog. Dog is a super-intelligent runaway from a genetic research lab.1990 - Whispers Based on the novel, Victoria Tennant gets stalked in Canada. The tagline was, Fear shouts. Terror whispers.1990 - Watchers II Still based on the novel, the dog saga continues, now with Marc Singer and Tracy Scoggins.1990 - The Face of FearÃ This was a TV movie based on the novel. It starred Pam Dawber and Lee Horsley. A killer stalks a guy who has psychic powe rs and is about to uncover his serial killer ways. Good thing he was a former mountaineer. The tagline was, Their lives are hanging by a thread, forty stories above the street. And a madman is trying to shoot them down.Ã 1991 - The Servants of Twilight Based on the novel, Bruce Greenwood tries to protect a boy who might be the Antichrist.1994 - Watchers IIIÃ We cant get enough of that dog. This stars Wings Hauser.1995 - HideawayÃ Based on the novel, Jeff Goldblum is brought back to life after a traffic accident, but now he has a psychic connection with a mad killer who is after his daughter, played by Alicia Silverstone.1997 - Intensity Based on the novel, in this TV movie, Molly Parker tangles with serial killer/kidnapper John C. McGinley.1998 - Mr. MurderÃ Based on the novel, this TV movie stars Stephen Baldwin as a mystery novel writer who gets cloned, and the clone is murder-y.1998 - Phantoms Based on the novel, the town of Snowfield, Colorado is not where you want to be. Starring Peter OToole and Rose McGowan.1998 - Watchers Reborn aka Watchers 4Ã The dog keeps going, this time with Mark Hamill as a detective.Ã 2000 - Sole SurvivorÃ Based on the novel, this was a four-hour TV mini-s eries. Billy Zane grieves over losing his wife and daughter in a plane crash, but the sole survivor (Gloria Reuben) may know it was actually a nefarious plot. 2001 - Black River Based on the novella, bad things are happening in this town.2013 - Odd Thomas Based on the novel, Anton Yelchin portrayed a fry cook who sees dead people.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
#FreelancerFriday #8 - Ellie Clarke, Editor #FreelancerFriday #8 - Ellie Clarke, Editor Ã¢â¬Å"For a first-time author the process can be quite illuminating. For the author to have given you their work, and for you to have made alterations and made sure that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re happy about it, youÃ¢â¬â¢re the second-closest person to their project. It can be quite great Ã¢â¬â especially if you know youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done a good job and that the client is happy.Ã¢â¬ Ellie Clarke is an editor based in the south-east UK. Ellie is something of a polymath, offering services for every step in the process, from ghostwriting through to proofreading. You canÃ enjoy our conversation below. Ã¢â¬â What kind of services do you offer as an editor? I do a wide range of editing and editorial work. I do everything from development editing all the way down to proofreading Ã¢â¬â light copy edits, heavy copy-edits, structural edits. I also ghostwrite, doing things from the other side.Ã Basically, all the things. I used to work in-house as a project editor. I had to manage everything from end-to-end. That meant organising other people to do the different stages, and sometimes doing it myself. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve carried on with that approach Ã¢â¬â to be able to put myself forward for any type of editing. Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got the skills itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to keep practicing them. Do you often do multiple types of edit for a single client? Like a developmental edit, and then a copy edit as well? For larger clients, publishers and so on, I might do a variety of different types of editorial work on different projects. So for one IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be structurally editing, another will be a copy-edit, and another will be a proofread. Private clients sometimes ask for a combined service, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m happy to offer it, but usually I would recommend that if someone wants, say, a copy-edit and a proofread, I often think its better to go to someone else for the proofread. A fresh pair of eyes can really help.Ã Then again, it depends on the project Ã¢â¬â if someone has specific knowledge that theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll need in order to do the proof properly, getting the original copy-editor to proofread it is a good idea. Having a fresh pair of eyes is good, but then also familiarity with a project has its own benefits. What do you think those benefits are, in your experience? One of the main ones would be if a new copy-editor comes in after a development edit has happened, they might reverse some stylistic choices previously made Ã¢â¬â especially if there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a good style sheet for the project. It could be any decision, even down to using double or single quotation marks. That sort of thing can end up being lost unless itÃ¢â¬â¢s been written down Ã¢â¬â but you also canÃ¢â¬â¢t write down every single decision Ã¢â¬â otherwise youÃ¢â¬â¢d end up with the Guardian style guide. Does the relationship between the author and the editor change over the course of a project? For a first-time author the process can be quite illuminating. For the author to have given you their work, and for you to have made alterations and made sure that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re happy about it, youÃ¢â¬â¢re the second-closest person to their project. It can be quite great Ã¢â¬â especially if you know youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done a good job and that the client is happy. It can be difficult as well. Sometimes people think of an edit as a friend looking through your book and looking for typos. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to be diplomatic and understand that the project is their baby. The dynamic changes over time. At first people can be defensive. As they realise that you have their projectÃ¢â¬â¢s best interests at heart it gets a lot easier. This is especially true when youÃ¢â¬â¢re working directly with an author Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s very different to when youÃ¢â¬â¢re working through a publishing house or a project management company. Is there a difference between working directly with a publishing house verses working with the author directly? Certainly. It can be beneficial, especially if youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking about self-publishing, in that the author retains a lot more creative control. The benefit of having direct contact with your editor is that you can feed, as we were saying, information about creative elements that you want a certain way directly to the editor. Otherwise that can sometimes get lost in translation. How does thinking about the reader affect how you work, how you set objectives for when youÃ¢â¬â¢re editing a piece? I think personally IÃ¢â¬â¢m working for the reader. I want the reader to get a book that works for them, that they enjoy, and that is high quality. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re editing, what are you looking at? The flow of the prose, the expression of the idea? It depends on the subject matter. For fiction editing, youÃ¢â¬â¢re certainly looking at the flow of the story, youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking at character development, at whether the text is too long or too short. Line editing and copy-editing is more practical Ã¢â¬â grammar, typos, for example. When in the writing process should an author approach an editor? You should definitely have a draft ready. Contacting someone when youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a few chapters and a synopsis can be a good idea, and people out there are happy to look at what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got so far to let you know if they think itÃ¢â¬â¢ll be worthwhile. In terms of actually getting into the nitty-gritty of the editorial process, you should have a draft and you should have reread that draft yourself.Ã Some people, quite a lot of people, recommend that before youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to have someone else look at your manuscript you should have gone over somewhere between three and ten times. I would say be as happy as you can be with the manuscript before you send it to an editor. The better shape the manuscript is in, the less editing it will tend to need, which makes it a faster process and a cheaper process Ã¢â¬â obviously good if youÃ¢â¬â¢re an indie author. What makes a project great to work on? Having a shared interest definitely helps. For authors itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to find an editor whoÃ¢â¬â¢s interested in what youÃ¢â¬â¢re writing. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve written a sci-fi novel and you approach someone who generally edits gardening textbooks theyÃ¢â¬â¢re probably not the best person. Maybe they are! Maybe they also have a secret interest in sci-fi! ItÃ¢â¬â¢s good when an author is ready for the process. Some people sometimes think theyÃ¢â¬â¢re ready, but still find it quite difficult. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re being edited the fact is that some of your text will be changed. Working with someone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s easy-going and open to talking about change is good. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about being able to have those conversations and say Ã¢â¬Å"I would recommend this, what do you think?Ã¢â¬ The author can say Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, I agree,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"No, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree, and this is why.Ã¢â¬ Being able to have that flow of ideas with someone really helps ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also good to be clear about the expectations you have from each other. The author should know what you need from them Ã¢â¬â in terms of the manuscript, in terms of how much time you need. As the editor, you should know what the author needs Ã¢â¬â how heavily they want the text edited, how long they have, if they have a specific deadline, if there are certain things they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to change. Do you dialogue with authors as well as marking up the text? In developmental editing thereÃ¢â¬â¢s often more dialogue Ã¢â¬â you might come across something where you need to know what the author wants to do before you can really proceed. That can come up in other forms of editing as well. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve known people who prefer to be presented with the edit and just go through the comments, and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve also known people who want to be consulted at every stage. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s usually better if the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s prepared to not have every change discussed Ã¢â¬â that can take a very long time, which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t useful for them. Is there anything about working with a publisher thatÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible to match working freelance? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that youÃ¢â¬â¢d match it exactly Ã¢â¬â it would still be a different experience. Unless you hire a project manager as well, which you can do, you end up being the project manager for your own bookÃ¢â¬ ¦ which can be quite stressful. But in terms of the book doing well, in terms of getting a good quality of finished project, I think you probably can match it.Ã As long as youÃ¢â¬â¢re willing to take the time with it and understand that you probably do need at least an edit and a proofread Ã¢â¬â generally one stage isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to get it as a finished product Ã¢â¬â then I think you can end up with a very good end product. Obviously, some people do very well indeed from publishing on Amazon, for example. Whether it will be different to a traditionally published book depends on what you as the author are happy to do with the book, and how many stages youÃ¢â¬â¢re happy to go through. Thank you for your time Ellie.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
What impact, if any, are sculpture parks and gardens having on the art world of today - Essay Example Jean-Francois Lyotard argues that realism in art is a form of conformism, and that the task of the modern artist is to produce Ã¢â¬Å"incommunicable statementsÃ¢â¬ which cannot be fitted in to the easy flow of information within computerized society. In his Ã¢â¬ËAppendix Answering the Question: What is Postmodernism?Ã¢â¬â¢, published at the end of The Postmodern Condition, he wrote that the Ã¢â¬Å"only definitionÃ¢â¬ of realism is that Ã¢â¬Å"it intends to avoid the question of reality implicated in that artÃ¢â¬ (1979). It is associated in this account with those who Ã¢â¬Å"pursue successful careers in mass conformism by communicating by means of the Ã¢â¬Ëcorrect rules,Ã¢â¬â¢ the endemic desire for reality with objects and situations capable of gratifying itÃ¢â¬ (Lyotard, 1979, p. 75). This uncritical use of established methods of representation is contrasted with Ã¢â¬Ëavant-gardeÃ¢â¬â¢ art, which, he argues, uses experimental innovations in technique and stru cture to attempt Ã¢â¬Å"to make visible that there is something which can be conceived and which can neither be seen nor made visibleÃ¢â¬ (Lyotard, 1979, p. 78). This Ã¢â¬Å"something that can be conceived but not seen nor made visibleÃ¢â¬ is often referred to as the sublime, a quality of transcendent greatness Ã¢â¬Å"with which nothing else can be compared and which is beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement or imitationÃ¢â¬ (Wikipedia, 2006). The presence of this sublime element, then, inspires the imagination in a specific direction based on which elements remain visible or understandable.