Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Art of Mummification Essay - 1362 Words

In this occupation certain persons employ themselves regularly and inherit this as a craft. (Herodotus) Just as Herodotus recorded, mummification dates back to early 3rd millennium B.C. It may date back many years, but was not perfected till many years later to what we officially call mummification. (Dunand 27) We call it mummification and the bodies mummies because of the Persian word for bitumen, which is mummia. The reason for this name is because of the dark skin of mummies, which people mistook for bitumen. Bitumen is a mineral formed for a tar like substance. (Becket 31) One of the main reasons to prepare the body, making it look like bitumen, was for the afterlife. After being prepared, they are still being found this day,†¦show more content†¦The most important people in the mummification process were the controller of mysteries, Lector priest, and God’s seal bearer. They were responsible for the religious preceding of the body. (Dunand 38) Many different things were mummified to be put into the elaborate tombs. Soon the process of being mummified became well known to the royals. The royals, when they were buried, had themselves put into elaborate tombs. (David 60) The royals thought that this idea would prevent grave robbers from disturbing their body. Not only were the royals buried in elaborate tombs, but at times members of nobility and officials had elaborate tombs. Common people could have elaborate tombs, but it depended on how much money they had to spend. Along with being buried in elaborate tombs to ward off grave robbers, they would be buried with animals to ward off spirits. The cultures of many people believed that the bull, baboon, cat, bird, and crocodiles were sacred. (Encyclopedia 2) They would specially have the animals mummified to resemble the gods in their religion. (Grace 24) Many cultures mummified there dead, but Egyptians were the most popular. Egyptians dates back all the way to six thousand years ago. They believed that death was the doorway to the next life and that the body needed to be intact to be accepted into the next life. (Becket 30) At first the Egyptians did not want to bury their dead in the rich agriculture, so they buried the dead on theShow MoreRelatedProcedures And The Afterlife, Ancient Egypt1686 Words   |  7 Pagesthe mummification of the royalty and the priest. I believe that understanding this material will allow us to better understand the motivations of the people who lived through this time. It will allow us to understand what motivated these people to achieve so much in their time. It is through this study into humanities that the ancient Egyptians go from being a mysterious culture that amazes us to humans who shared many of our struggles and fears. We will look at a few pieces of various art thatRead More Mummy Case of Paankhenamun Essay1072 Words   |  5 PagesMummy Case of Paankhenamun Works Cited Not Included The work I chose to analyze was from a wall fragment from the tomb of Ameneemhet and wife Hemet called Mummy Case of Paankhenamun, found in the Art Institute of Chicago. The case of the Mummy Paankhenamun is one of the most exquisite pieces of art produced by the Egyptian people during the time before Christ. This coffin belonged to a man named Paankhenamun, which translates to â€Å"He Lives for Amun† (Hornblower Spawforth 74). Paankhenamun wasRead MoreAncient Egypt : The Egyptian God Anubis Essay1244 Words   |  5 Pagespolitical structure, cultural achievement and art. Their religion consisted of up 2000 gods and goddess. Only some were worshiped universally throughout Egypt. They were often represented as being half human and half animal. As an example, the Egyptian god Anubis was half man and half jackal. He is associated with mummification and the afterlife in Egyptian mythology. Egyptian religion was oriented toward people s’ attainment of immortality signifi ed by mummification/preservation of the dead. The doctrineRead More Old Kingdom of Egypt: The Reliefs of Ankh-Neb-Ef941 Words   |  4 Pagespriests could interpret the will of the gods, and the pharaoh were duty bound to follow God’s commands. The relief’s purpose was to assist the priest in his transition to the afterlife. As such, the Egyptian culture discouraged the viewing of such art outside the tombs of their owners. The relief shows a frontal formality for the owners and artists meant them to face straight ahead. The sculptor meant the relief to face the funeral procession and rituals. It is also possible that the relief residedRead MoreEgyptian Religion and Immortality Essay1395 Words   |  6 Pages The most noticing aspect of Egyptian religion is its obsession with immortality and the belief of life after death. This sculpture can show you this on how mummification gave upbringing to complex arts in ancient Egypt. The sculpture is the Mummy Case of Paankhenamun. The artwork is currently viewed at The Art Institute of Chicago. The sculpture was from the third period, Dynasty 22, in ancient Egypt. However, the sculpture has many features to it that makes it so unique in ancient Egypt from anyRead MoreEgyptian View of the Afterlife Essay1687 Words   |  7 Pagesthat will be focused on are the multiple functions of the tomb and rituals, specifically the mummification of bodies. Ancient Egyptian tombs had many functions; the main function being to hold the bodies of the dead. Tombs were typically built during a person’s lifetime and were ready by their time of death (Olson, 2009). Before bodies were put in the tombs, they underwent a process called mummification to help preserve the body and keep it intact. The tomb was also a place where family members couldRead MoreBurial Practices of Ancient Egypt Essay1322 Words   |  6 Pagesprompted the arousal of intricate Egyptian funeral rituals. Funerary Customs Perhaps the most notorious of burial practices originating in Egypt is that of mummification. Why such an extraordinary attempt was made to preserve cadavers may seem illogical to some, the reasons for embalming the dead made perfect sense to the Egyptians. Mummification kept corpses in a desiccate, pristine condition; the body must be suitable for the owner’s spirit to return for a rendezvous, as per Egyptian belief (EvansRead MoreMasks Of Deceased Persons : Ancient Egypt792 Words   |  4 Pages Masks of deceased persons are part of traditions in many countries. The most important process of the funeral ceremony in ancient Egypt was the mummification of the body, which, after prayers and consecration, was put into a sarcophagus enameled and decorated with gold and gems. A special element of the rite was a sculpted mask, put on the face of the deceased. This mask was believed to strengthen the spirit of the mummy and guard the soul from evil spirits on its way to the afterworld. The bestRead MoreProcedures And The Afterlife, Ancient Egypt2023 Words   |  9 PagesWilliam Leaver Ruth Wollersheim Humanities 1025, Sec. 1 11/11/2016 Final Art Essay Funerary Procedures and the Afterlife, of Ancient Egypt In this paper I will plan to discuss in detail the funerary procedures that were used in ancient Egypt. I will pay particular attention as to how the Idea of the afterlife influenced many of the traditions in ancient Egypt that we now think of today. In surveying their beliefs on the afterlife we will begin to get a better picture as to how these ideas affectedRead MoreThe Life Of Ancient Egyptian Religion847 Words   |  4 Pagesconnection belief necessitated that the body remain intact while the soul traversed through the spiritual world. This afterlife belief is what supported the Egyptian art of mummification. Varying across social classes, mummification was an important ritual and rite meant to protect the deceased from loss of eternity or soul completeness. Mummification was a process done only by priests who had the ability to extract human organs without causing damage to the body. Extracted organs were placed in canopic jars

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

10 Interesting Fluorine Facts

Fluorine (F) is an element you encounter daily, most often as fluoride in water and toothpaste. Here are 10 interesting facts about this important element. You can get more detailed information about chemical and physical properties on the fluorine facts page. Fast Facts: Fluorine Element Name: FluorineElement Symbol: FAtomic Number: 9Atomic Weight: 18.9984Group: Group 17 (Halogens)Category: NonmetalElectron Configuration: [He]2s2sp5 Fluorine is the most reactive and most electronegative of all the chemical elements. The only elements it doesnt vigorously react with are oxygen, helium, neon, and argon. It is one of the few elements that will form compounds with noble gases xenon, krypton, and radon.Fluorine is the lightest halogen, with atomic number 9. Its standard atomic weight is 18.9984 and is based on its single natural isotope, fluorine-19.George Gore managed to isolate fluorine using an  electrolytic process in 1869, but the experiment ended in disaster when fluorine reacted explosively with hydrogen gas.  Henri Moisson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Memorial Prize in Chemistry for isolating fluorine in 1886. He also used electrolysis to obtain the element but kept the fluorine gas separate from the hydrogen gas.  Although he was the first to successfully obtain pure fluorine, Moissons work was interrupted multiple times when he was poisoned by the reactive element. Moisson was also the first person to m ake artificial diamonds, by compressing charcoal.The 13th most abundant element in the Earths crust is fluorine. It is so reactive that it is not found naturally in pure form but only in compounds. The element is found in minerals, including fluorite, topaz, and feldspar.Fluorine has many uses. It is found as fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water, in Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene), drugs including the chemotherapeutic drug  5-fluorouracil, and etchant hydrofluoric acid. It is used in refrigerants (chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs), propellants, and for the enrichment of uranium by UF6 gas. Fluorine is not an essential element in human or animal nutrition. Topical fluoride application, as from toothpaste or mouthwash, was once believed to be effective for the conversion of tooth enamel hydroxyapatite into stronger fluorapatite, but more recent studies indicate fluoride aids enamel regrowth. Trace dietary fluorine levels may impact bone strength. While fluorine compounds are not fo und in animals, there are natural organofluorines in plants, which typically act as defenses against herbivores.Because it is so reactive, fluorine is difficult to store. Hydrofluoric acid (HF), for example, is so corrosive it will dissolve glass. Even so, HF is safer and easier to transport and handle than pure fluorine. Hydrogen fluoride is considered to be a weak acid at low concentrations, but it acts as a strong acid at high concentrations.Although fluorine is relatively common on Earth, it is rare in the universe, believed to be found at concentrations of about 400 parts per billion. While fluorine forms in stars,  nuclear fusion with hydrogen produces helium and oxygen, or fusion with helium makes neon and hydrogen.Fluorine is one of the few elements that can attack diamond.The pure non-metallic element is a gas at room temperature and pressure. Fluorine changes from an extremely pale yellow diatomic gas (F2) into a bright yellow liquid at -188 degrees Celsius (-307 Fahrenh eit). Fluorine resembles another halogen, chlorine. The solid has two allotropes. The alpha form is soft and transparent, while the beta form is hard and opaque. Fluorine has a characteristic pungent odor that can be smelled at a concentration as low as 20 parts per billion.There is only one stable isotope of fluorine, F-19. Fluorine-19 is highly sensitive to magnetic fields, so it is used in magnetic resonance imaging. Another 17 radioisotopes of fluorine have been synthesized, ranging in mass number from 14 to 31. The most stable is fluorine-17, which has a half-life just of under 110 minutes. Two metastable isomers are also known.  The isomer 18mF has a half-life of about 1600 nanoseconds, while 26mF has a half-life of 2.2 milliseconds. Sources Banks, R. E. (1986). Isolation of Fluorine by Moissan: Setting the Scene.  Journal of Fluorine Chemistry.  33  (1–4): 3–26.Bà ©guà ©, Jean-Pierre; Bonnet-Delpon, Danià ¨le (2008). Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry of Fluorine. Hoboken: John Wiley Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-27830-7.Lide, David R. (2004). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (84th ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0566-7.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Index Funds and Mutual Funds Free Essays

Whether money is be the root cause of evil or not, I don†t know. What I do know it that since the dawn of man, the concept of currency had been intimately intertwined with human society. It helps form the basis of governments, and most laws. We will write a custom essay sample on Index Funds and Mutual Funds or any similar topic only for you Order Now The world stock market is where these global force that powers our atomic age society merges into a complex matrix of financial void; opportunity in it†s most complex form. The raw power of the stock market that can either bring a man to rapid success, or completely ruin him. Two of the prominent worlds of the stock market are the topic for this research paper: Index Funds and regular mutual funds. To my horror, these two terms are incredibly vague words and each have many different parts with their own specific characteristics. I will be comparing and contrasting the over shared characteristics of both kinds of stock market investing. Let us begin by explaining what both these terms actually mean. Indexing, in its simplest form, means buying all of the stocks, bonds or other instrument of a market, or asset class, instead of trying to pick winners and losers. Index investors are content with the average performance of a market. When they invest, they buy all an amount of all the stocks within the index with the knowledge that some individual stocks will gain and some will lose. The hope and assumption is when investing in index funds, that the overall net change of all the stocks in the index average out to a gain. This is usually the case as the normal trend for a market is to gradually climb. Index investors are skeptical that on average a money manager can improve on the average performance without raising risk. They are even more skeptical after fees are subtracted. The best known index, the Standard Poor’s 500 (SP 500), is a collection of the top 500 major US stocks. However there are dozens of others, including the Euro Top 100, the largest European stocks; EAFE, a broad global index of companies from numerous countries; and the Lehman Brothers Aggregate Bond Index, a collection of government and commercial bonds. Other names for index investing include â€Å"asset class investing† and â€Å"passive investing.† As the name suggests, passive investing is basically a no brainier. The philosophy is not to worry about what individual stocks will gain or lose but to place your risks on the market as a whole. An asset class is simply a category of investment, such as stocks or bonds. No surprises – You instantly know whether your gaining or losing as your profits are based on the overall conditions of the market, or at least the section of the market you invested in. With an actively managed mutual fund investment, you may not know until the very end that the fund manager just lost you or gained you a great deal of free money. Low maintenance – No thinking required. In this sense its kinda like a slot machine just on a much larger scale and on a slot machine†¦ you never win. There is no debating over which stocks to buy, for how long to keep them. Your money stays put; you always know where it is unlike mutual funds where its always being shuffled around. Low Taxes – Taxes on distributions among shareholders is significantly less with index funds as opposed to mutual funds. This saves time and money. Low Expenses – Stock managers charge money. The better they are, the more they charge which boils down to the more you make, the more is taken out of you profit. The average general stock fund takes 1.5% of your assets each year for expenses. Some funds charge much more. The average index fund charges only 0.46%, which means more of your money, is left behind. Lower risk – As you invest in an index, your stocks are generalized throughout the market. This diversification holds a lower risk then picking out individual stocks yourself. Average returns – Investing in an index fund means you’ll never beat the market. You’ll never even match it, since fund expenses will knock a little off your returns. And even though most actively managed mutual funds don’t beat the market over time, a few managers have consistently posted outstanding performances. No downside protection – Mutual fund managers often increase their holdings of bonds and cash if they think the market is poised to fall. Index funds offer no such safeguards: If the market plunges, you’ll go down with it. That’s why most financial planners say index funds are best suited for long-term investors who can ride out dips in the market. High minimums – While index funds generally have low expenses, you may need a lot of money to get started. For example the Vanguard fund requires an initial investment of $3,000 to go into one of its popular index funds; other funds require $1,000 to $5,000. And once you’re in, it might be expensive to get out: Many index funds charge a fee to investors who don’t hold onto their shares at least a year, or more. No fun – Like I said, it†s a no-brainer. Which means you sit and watch your money travel up and down a little red line on you television screen while watching CSPAN. Not as exciting as getting the newspaper the next day and finding out your fund just quintupled. A mutual fund is a company that combines, or pools, investors’ money and, generally, purchases stocks and/or bonds. Ideally, a fund’s size and efficiency, combined with experienced management, provide advantages for investors that include diversification, expert stock and bond selection, low costs, and convenience. In terms of legal structure, a mutual fund is a corporation that receives preferential tax treatment under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. The most common type of mutual fund, called an open-end fund, allows investors to buy and sell stock in it on an ongoing basis. The mutual fund issues shares of stock to investors in exchange for cash. However, unlike most cooperations do, mutual funds don†t issue a set amount of shares; new shares are issued as each new investment is made. Investors thus become part owners of the fund itself, and thereby the assets of the fund. The fund, in turn, uses investors’ cash to purchase securities, such as stocks and bonds. This makes up the majority of the assets that the fund makes for itself. There are two main types of mutual funds, a load and no-load fund. Basically speaking, a load fund is one that has a sales charge, and a no-load does not. Those that do have sales charges simply add them on to the net asset value of the fund, thus coming up with a new, higher offering price per share. The underlying values of the fund†s shares do not change. An investor selling shares will still receive only the net asset value. A no-load fund is simpler. The net asset value is used for both the purchase price and the selling price. Therefore, the two prices are always the same. Diversification – As opposed to independent stock investing. Your money is more diversified but not as Cost – Again, as opposed to individual investing. Funds usually have trading cost discounts and can spread internal cost over the large shareholder base. Professional Management – You have a professional fund manager who watches the stock and decides where it should go and when it should go there. Tax planning difficult – because the timing of taxable distribution is uncertain. You cannot choose the sale dates for yourself and therefore there is much uncertainty on when your taxable distributions are made. Uncertainty – For competitive reasons with other mutual funds, the funds usually don†t disclose the report of a transaction until after its been made. This leaves you constantly one step behind in knowing where you money is. Manager changes – A fund can all of a sudden change a manager which you will not find out about in a timely manner. You don†t know who†s handling your money and have little control over it yourself. How to cite Index Funds and Mutual Funds, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Traveling Down The Road free essay sample

Describe how the experiences you’ve had, the people you’ve met, and the activities you’ve joined have prepared you to reflect the honesty, integrity, and willingness to give back as expected of a Daniels Scholar. Life is full of adventures, and it’s our choice to choose the right path or not. During our long journey to success, we always make little mistakes, but learn them a long the way. It is a part of life that we explore, have fun, and to try something different for a change. Maybe to make the best time for today and in the future so it won’t always be boring and difficult. Life is like an obstacle course, it has many challenges that we have to go through that can make us struggle. Life has many difficulties that we all face that makes us weak, but later on we get stronger by learning them. We will write a custom essay sample on Traveling Down The Road or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page My life is being compared to a car on a long drive. A new car that has never been driven before is like me walking for the first time and start to explore new things and new areas that I’ve never seen or been to. My ideas and my way of life started to open up more. I wanted to try new things and have fun with my friends in my old quiet neighbor hood. Later on when I was a little bit older, I start to realize that life is not always perfect. Experiencing that un-perfect life was a hard thing to deal with. It was difficult for me to face and made me weak, but later on I got stronger everyday. I tried not to deal with my emotions and tried to make things right again. My road was rough like a dirt rocky road going up a mountain, then turned out to be smooth like a pavement road. The rough areas were starting to go away into the smooth areas. I got my emotions together to start a new era. I started changing the person who I am. I was little and weak transformed into young women wi th stronger emotions. When school was about to start again in the year 2003, I was starting to be a fifth grader and be in a new school called Skyview Elementary. I had no friends for the longest time till this girl name Morgan started talking to me. I noticed for a couple of days that she didn’t have any friends either. Morgan and I started to hang out more during recess and after school during the year. I thought to myself that my life is starting to get better, until I met her dark side that I never knew she had. One day during recess we were playing a game on the play ground. She taught me how to play a game that I’ve never heard. I listen to the instructions carefully and thought I understood clear enough. When we played, Morgan stopped the game right away. She yelled at me saying I was playing it all wrong. We tried playing it again. She stopped then slapped me in the face. I got mad and asked â€Å"Why did you slap me for?†. She yelled back at me said â⠂¬Å"You’re playing it wrong†. We stopped playing and hardly talk to each other after that. During the school years through middle school, I was alone at first, trying to get use to a new big school and new faces around. Later on I made new friends, bad friends that I always got in trouble with, but I started getting mature and getting my act straightened out. During my freshman year in high school, I started to make better friends along the way. I met my best friend Ashley during my freshman year. We’ve been friends for three years now and we always help each other when we are in need of help. Our three years of friendship, we’ve only gotten into two little fights, but we always work things out. Together till the end, the friendship will last in our memories and in our journey. My life hasn’t always been successful in my journey, but it isn’t over yet. In journey, I will keep going to my success. I will not give up on my pride and integrity. I will be strong.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Monkey See Monkey Do free essay sample

The brain development of a child is more simplistic than it is complex. Much of how a child’s brain is developed is not only by what he or she may hear, but also by what he or she observes. Many studies have been conducted to prove that a child is more than likely going to imitate who he or she sees and implement that particular observation into action and will not but those actions through a conductive reasoning process until he or she develops the skill to reason, which does not develop until â€Å"3 or 4 years old,† according to scholastic. com. A specific study was held by Standford University using 33 boys, and 33 girls ranging from the ages 42-71 months. Each child was taken into a dimly lit room, and as he or she sat in the room a program began to play. This particular program was shown of a woman who was placed in a room with a Bo-Bo Doll (a blow-up doll with a weight in the bottom of it). We will write a custom essay sample on Monkey See Monkey Do or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As the woman entered the room, she began to mess around with the doll by hitting, punching, taking objects from around the room to wallop the doll, she took a toy gun and pretended to shoot the doll, and at one point she sat on the doll and began to rapidly punch the doll. When the program ended, the children were asked to move to another room. This room was full of toys, and the Bo-Bo Doll. Behind a two-sided mirror psychologists observed each child’s behavior and how they interacted with the Bo-Bo Doll. Long explanation short, there was not one child that did not beat on, or demonstrate one or more of the actions that he or she observed while watching the program prior to being placed in the room with the Bo-Bo Doll. Nonetheless, even scientists have found that not only children are influenced by observation, but also how influential each person’s, no matter what age, actions can be through the eyes of the observer. The way in which a person develops his or her worldview is not primarily based off of what he or she will hear, but rather by what he or she observes. Much like the idea, or the cliche, that â€Å"beauty is in the eye of the beholder,† the way in which each individual has conducted his or her reality is through his or her own perception of that reality, which then stems from his or her observations to conduct and form a given reality. Though the idea of perception being at the core of one’s reality, it is possible that perception has also, like reality, been formed through pure observations and imitations. As an adult, you can see that the very behavior of observation and the perception of reality infiltrating its way into our culture, every day. Take the world of reality TV for example; you’re a tan, blonde 23 year old and you’re sitting in your Lazy-Boy, kicking back with a bag of Doritos. As you pick up the remote control, point it at the television set and press the on button, on comes the 52† flat screen TV. Beginning to flip vicariously through the channels, while flipping though any infomercial and commercial that you find yourself stumbling upon, until you find The Hills. Eating your Doritos you find yourself completely immersed in the reality, or lack thereof, of the The Hills. Living in luxury, taking note of the emphasis on the outward appearance and materialistic lifestyle, slowly but surely your perception of their reality (on The Hills) is slowly developing into what you believe that reality should look like. Then, after 140 episodes of The Hills you find yourself visiting the tanning bed 4-5 per week, maxing credit cards out for Gucci Italian leather handbags and other designer materials, an STD, and loans that you aren’t able to pay off because you decided that you wanted a BMW Sport like one of the main characters on The Hills. Nonetheless, your perception of reality was distorted, or better yet created, through a world that you solely observed. Of course this analogy is much too the extreme, but it was created to prove a point, â€Å"monkey see, monkey do. Much of what an individual does says, or how a person perceives is observed through his or her upbringing. Nonetheless, brain development, and the sensation of perception only continues to form each and every day. This may be one of the reasons why Gandhi said, â€Å"A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes. † Whatever a person puts into his or her mind is essentially what he or she becomes. The perception of reality forms a reality that it custom to a particular perception. Aristotle said, â€Å"The energy of the mind is the essence of life. †

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Blood Wedding. essays

Blood Wedding. essays Lorcas use of language in Blood Wedding is very poetic. He uses lots of metaphors and moves from Prose to Verse within the play. In Blood Wedding, poetry and drama seem to become one as characters talk to each other in verse form. But verse is only used in the play at a heightened dramatic point or to help create tension. For example, when Leonardo and the Bride are talking to each other in the middle of the forest, they speak in verse form. I think Lorca does this because it adds to the romantic side of the play and emphasises how they feel about each other. They also speak to each other in metaphorical terms, as do some of the other characters when they are speaking. She describes herself as a straw blown on the wind which means she cant help following Leonardo just like the wind is too overpowering for the straw. I like the way Lorca uses metaphors in this play. They emphasise points or peoples feelings and they add to Lorcas idea of poetic drama. Lorca was also interested in music and rhythm within his theatre and this is apparent in Blood Wedding. When the mother-in-law is singing to the child to go to sleep, it is very rhythmic and stylised. Lorca also uses repetition a lot to emphasise something. For example, the mother has a great hate towards weapons such as knives and guns, obviously as she has lost her son and husband. So to accentuate the idea of her hate for these things she is always talking about it. No we cant be done with it! Lorcas use of surrealism and imagery gives the play a slightly magical tone which I like. He does this well in the forest scene when the moon comes out and ...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Politics of contemporary Middle East & North African Essay

Politics of contemporary Middle East & North African - Essay Example A historical perspective The history of Egypt was changed after the Arab conquest of 641. The military commander Amr ibn al As initiated the processes of the Islamization and Arabization. From the ninth century Egypt was ruled by strong autonomous dynasties and the destiny of the country was in the hands of hereditary dynasties (History of Egypt). Adelson stated: The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar; it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, and the Persian Gulf (Adelson, 1995). North Africa underwent substantial changes in the 5th century. Tunisia was invaded by E uropean tribes. Starting from 7th to 15th centuries Tunisian population experienced numerous migrations and Jews and Hispanics Muslims entered this country. Tunisia as Arab cultural center was known as the Turkish Ottoman Empire until it was protected by France in 1881. Starting from 1956 this country gained independence, but there is still a close connection with France on political, economic and cultural levels (History of Tunisia).   According to John Foster Dulles,  the Middle East is "the area lying between and including  Libya  on the west and  Pakistan  on the east,  Syria  and  Iraq  on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the  Sudan  and  Ethiopia" (Davison, 1960). Sir Ignatius stated that  Middle East  means "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of  India  or command the approaches to India" (Adelson, 1995). Current events The main common feature between Tunisia and Egypt is a repressive regime, which is appr opriate for other Middle Eastern autocracies (Egypt and the  Middle East:  revolution  or evolution?) In spite of a social turmoil, it is relevant to note that Tunisia is â€Å"an economically successful state† (Dunne 2010). In accordance with data of the World Economic Forum's  Global Competitiveness Index 2010  Tunisia  Ã¢â‚¬Ëœgained the lead’ in comparison with Poland,  Italy and  Spain. In 2010 Tunisia was â€Å"a country for tourism, not terrorism† (Burger 2010). Social support of the government enabled pregnant women to receive prenatal care; there were favorable conditions for businessmen to start their business in 11 days (Burger 2010). In spite of the mentioned data, an oppressive regime of President Zine el-Abidine Ben Alikept has been an issue of a great concern for Tunisian society. 90s were marked by imprisonment of more than 10,000 political opponents, Islamists, or ‘suspected enemies’ (Burger 2010).  There was no cha nce to criticize Tunisian government. Tunisia was known as the country with the most repressive regime. Among Middle Eastern dictatorships,  Tunisia  was considered one of the most repressive. Thus, a current protest of public in Tunisia is often compared to a ‘dog who barks in a desert’ (Burger 2010). Voiceless people are not afraid and finally express their ideas versus their government, their real

Monday, February 3, 2020

Discussion Board 8-2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Discussion Board 8-2 - Essay Example The eating disorders examined were based on a continuum of self-esteem and perfectionism. According to the study, a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) design was used (Peck & Lightsey, 2008). With this type of design, the researcher investigates multiple dependent variables at the same time. Based on the study, there are three dependent variables studied which include eating disordered (EDO) women, the symptomatic, and the asymptomatic. An interesting finding in the study was the relationship between eating disorders and perfectionism. Under ordinary circumstances, eating disorders are associated with self-esteem. Many studies show that individuals with eating disorders usually have low self-esteem because they feel that their bodies are different from those of others. This aspect explains why most eating disordered individuals have abnormal eating habits such eating too much and inducing puking. However, the aspect of perfectionism has not largely been explored as it relates to eating disorders. From the study, it was found that women with eating disorders exhibit perfectionist attitudes so as to achieve the â€Å"perfect body† shape (Peck & Lightsey, 2008). This interesting finding show that individuals with eating disorders fear making mistakes, are doubtful about their actions, become concerned about criticism, and like to put things in order (Peck & Lightsey, 2008). Indeed, this is a critical aspect tha t healthcare professionals should use when treating patients with eating

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Gene Flow: Causes and Barriers

Gene Flow: Causes and Barriers Variation of inherited traits in the section of individual organisms over a period of time is referred as evolution. The major renowned sources of variation are gene flow, genetic recombination and mutation. Gene flow that is also acknowledged as gene migrations is the genetic alleles exchange within populations by migration of gametes, spores and individuals of the same species. This is common in species through crossbreeding, migration and cross pollination which yield hybrid organisms. Movement of genes is often carried out by human being and wind. When people move from one town or country to another and carry with them plants to experiment if they can grow in their new location gene variation commence. Differences in gene flow across populations depends on the type of organism, populations of inactive organisms tends to be more isolated from each other than population of actively moving organisms. This paper will examine gene flow as an aspect of evolution biology and provide a d eeper understanding of its benefits to organisms. Mobility in gene flow One of the principal factors contributing the flow of genes between different populations is their movement habit. Plant population compared to animal population appears to be sedentary, hence, animals have high rate of experiencing gene flow. Migration and emigration of populations can reduce genetic differences within that particular group (Beurton, Peter, Raphael Falk et al 224). Through emigration, genes are carried away by the ongoing individuals to a new destination, whilst migration brings on board new genes to an existing gene pool. These processes are activated by perpetual diffusion and mixing of genes of a sexual population. Barriers to Gene Flow Human growth and advancement in technological world has not been without its cons to gene flow. This is a major obstacle to gene flow, especially in its many artificial and permanent development of the landscape. A structure like the Great Wall of China has hinder movement of many organisms and relocation of alleles of genes of indigenous plants population (Lewin 95). Another behavior that prohibits gene flow is the fencing of a game park where insider animals are restricted from meeting others from another park. Vast human progress and occupation can wipe out or partition ecosystems into a desert or secluded islands resulting to lessening genetic variation of the populations imprisoned there. In the efforts to facilitate gene flow scientists are increasingly crafting new ways to connect to these isolated species as away of maintaining viable genetic variation. The other distinguished barriers are the natural barriers that halt or slow the rate of migration of genes among populations . These are oceans, impassable mountains, hills and large and wide deserts that exhibit great challenges for animals movement. This hindrances leads to loss of genes in a population as fertile population are barred from meeting the weak or other strong ones (Beurton et al 124). These barriers in human population have created suspicion and tension among races to an extent of tribal animosity. Conducted studies reveal that sex chromosomes (X and Z chromosomes) are affiliated to reproduction and sex genes (Lewin 88). These genes are a factor in the progression of post zygotic isolation especially in hybrid sterility. It has been noted empirically that strengthening of zygotic isolation does occur in certain conditions. Recombination between alleles is a significant factor that has been identified to be opposing reinforcement. Connections between genes that affect mating and those that affect hybrid fitness plus sex chromosomes have the likelihood of boosting the process of hybridizing species. These ideas fall short of extrapolating whether essential forms of non-adaptive effect of divergence with no gene flow are stagnant or they increase. As a result of this we discover that there exists co evolution of zygotic barriers to the flow of genes. Gene flow in action The lives of species is involves a lot of movements in search of satisfaction and fulfilling hierarchy of needs. Thus, migration has become a significant force of restructuring genetic variation. In the contemporary globalization characterized by wide dispersions of humans in search green pastures and mates gene exchange is take place fast. There are now inter-racial marriages aiding much generating patterns of hereditary variations. Migration can occur to a mass of people due war or search of resources and food or to an individual as a result of displacement or personal drive to explore. Large scale migration of people leads to accumulation of mutations and as a result population diverges as there is genetic drift. Individual movements in a small geographical area enhance genetic variation between populations. These migration behaviors have distinctive effects on population structure with each having its methodological challenges. Gene flow accelerated by intermarriage between national or state communities occurs frequently within a short time period. It remains a challenge to determine temporal control and spatial control of historical human migration. Geographical sampling is a costly exercise, hence, to determine geographic scope of a specific event advanced genotyping technologies are used as they are economical. Determining temporal control which is when gene flow has occurred is even more challenging; DNA studies are examined to come up with resolution pertaining human mobility. New methods are underway to provide conclusive sequential bounds on flow of human genes using genetic data that will be analyzed to show human gene flow. To discover historical movements researchers use genetic markers like mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome as they are highly thought to be mainly instructive genetic markers. To study human history using these markers one has to understand that Y chromosome is passed from a f ather to sons while mitochondrial DNA is passed only from mother to off springs. This distinctive mode of transmission makes it easier to study human descent. Due to high rate of random genetic drift in these systems Y chromosome and Mitochondrion DNA have been found to have uncertainty. Their records show biasness towards the sex-specific migration of women and men as they are small loci representing large region of human genetic variations (Slarkin 327). Nowadays, multiple markers can be screened across human genome due to rapid progress in use of genotype technologies. Hence, to determine if two populations have similar genetic variations has become simple. However, it requires advanced modeling and inferential statistics to enumerate and establish the amount of gene flow between them. Gene flow from Neanderthals have made scientist to meditate and compare entire genomes. Complete genome sequence of Neanderthal has been sequenced by some scientist. Previously only mitochondria DNA were accessible from Neanderthal as they occur in numerous copies per cell which make it difficult to mine DNA from primeval remains (Barton Bengtsson 360). In this conducted study there was no trace of gene flow between Neanderthal and human being albeit this research was not conclusive as Mitochondrion DNA could have been mislaid through genetic drift. A complete combination of genome sequence from three Neanderthal creatures has been led by Green and colleagues through use of advanced new technology of sequencing. In contrast to mitochondrion DNA there are data sets that show existence of gene flow from Neanderthal to modern human being. It has been identified that non-African descendant have at least 13 genetic regions that originate from Neanderthal siblings. Since these regions are not present in Africans descent, this is thus a sign to show that gene flow had occurred from Neanderthal to modern people as it is assumed some ancestors had left Africa around 50,000 years to look for other destination in the rest of the world (Servedio Kirkpatrick 766). Conclusion An increase or decrease of a population affects gene pool frequencies as gene flow will have high chance to take place in a densely populated area while there will be minimal changes in a sparsely populated area. For example if all black people were to leave America, the next generation of humans would probably have few or no blacks. This study has revealed that gene flow can occur without migration especially in circumstances where people pays a visit to particular place and mate with natives even though they will eventually go back to their place. In this case, genes are transferred across those populations and the resulting generation is hybridized. Gene flow occurs between species when segment of DNA are carried by viruses in their routine invasion of cells of plants and animals. Although this mechanism of transfer is seldom, there exist documented evidence for some species of microorganisms, mammals, reptiles and insects. Human beings have not been left behind in this process; there is a high probability that 40-50% of DNA sequencing might have been carried out by viruses (Slarkin 420).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

University Success

Grand Canyon University strives to support student learning by creating an online community. A â€Å"community† feeling inside an online course can help me as well as other students stay motivated. Online classrooms have the same characteristics as a traditional classroom; however, the class instructors direct course materials through a Grand Canyon University online portal. The course instructor presents topic-based questions to the students in the classroom forum that allow collaboration of student and instructor thoughts, debates, and experiences. The online interaction between classmates as well as instructor creates a virtual community where classmates and instructor can rely on each other while helping each other to stay motivated. The online classroom relies on collaboration between students and instructor in order to promote successful learning experiences. Collaboration in an online classroom consists of student responses to the instructor’s questions. As students post their individual thoughts, other students respond to them adding their own perspectives, experiences, and knowledge. Once the conversations volley back and forth thru ought the course’s main forum true collaboration begins. According to the text University Success E2, â€Å"The keys to avoiding isolation are communication, collaboration, and networking† (Grand Canyon University, 2012). It is evident that collaboration in both an online and a traditional classroom is dependent on instruction, participation, as well as feedback and it is most effective when students participate several times a day. It is imperative that students are aware that they are responsible for their own collaboration by participating in interactions with other classmates and the instructor through the class wall, individual forum, e-mail, or chat rooms. A major advantage that comes from effective collaboration is the skills that students gain from being actively involved in the classroom that is necessary for almost every career. My future career as a teacher depends on effective collaboration among my peers and me as it ensures professional development and school improvements. Some students use collaboration to network beyond the classroom. For instance, networking with family, friends, coworkers, Twitter, Facebook, or other discussion forums opens up portals to further collaboration with non-GCU students. Further collaboration expands the students’ minds as well as offers more information or perspectives. Furthermore, networking is beneficial to professionals in any career field because it expands professional knowledge, keeps professionals abreast of new business trends, offers career and personal opportunities, as well as provides business leads.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Gantt Chart for Execution of House Construction Essay

The activity of house construction involves many stages which are spread over many months. The case study example taken for the preparation of Gantt chart is selected as it involves various stages and there are many people involved in different activities. These activities are interdependent on the performance of various work groups and can get delayed if not planned and executed timely. Thus I present a Gantt Chart that will assist and ensure effective working in order to obtain the end result as planned. Explanation of Gantt Chart (refer appendix) The overall activity has been planned for a time span of 9 months. The activities have been classified as follows Excavation (A) : This is the first stage where excavation for the house columns needs to be carried out. The lead time for this activity is one month. This is a process which is labor intensive and needs to be completed as per the architectural drawing. Other activities cannot be started before ensuring accuracy of the excavation work as the structure cannot be modified if desired at a later stage. Hence activity B , RCC cannot start before 100 % completion of activity A. In case during this phase it is realized that any delays could be caused in reaching the first milestone then additional workforce or earth moving equipment needs to be outsourced. RCC (B) (Reinforced Cement Concrete) : The lead time for this activity is three months. Once excavation is complete the next stage is of RCC which involves making columns and beams of the house. Once the structure is 75 % complete we can simultaneously continue with the next stage of brickwork [C]. The achievement of this milestone will not hamper activity C but due caution has to be exercised that the activity gets completed by the fourth month form the project starting date as it is the start of activity D and E. Brickwork (C) Along with brickwork the other activities Electrical (D) and Plumbing (E) also need to be commenced upon the completion of stage B and 50 % of stage C as the electrical pipes and fittings need to be covered inside the walls. Similarly toilets and kitchen requires plumbing to be done simultaneously. If the activity deviates from its planned lead time of two months then activity D, E and F will need to be carried out at an increased pace than its actual to cover up for the lag time. Electrical (D)and Plumbing (E) These stages can be executed simultaneously as they are not interdependent on each other . Once these are complete we can move on to the next stage. Plastering (F) After completion of electrical and plumbing work we can start with the internal plastering activity. However external plastering can be carried out when 50 % of stage D and E are complete. This is the third milestone. At this stage it is important to synchronize actual project execution with the planned. Tiling (G) Once plastering is 100 % complete then we can move on to Tiling & Flooring work Painting (H) This is the final milestone to be executed after 100 % completion of activity G . Conclusion: Gantt chart gives a clear picture of the stages and helps in noticing any deviations and corrective steps can be implemented which in turn will not disrupt other schedules and help in achieving desired results in a cost effective and efficient manner. The case for buy Vs make is indeed a matter of individual capacities and judgment in the said example. By choosing to make as in the above case the maker gets freedom of choice and taste to suit his own needs. If activities are carried out with due diligence the project would be cost effective. Reference : Gantt Chart- Wikipedia, 19 October 2008, < http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Gantt_chart>

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Essay on Alzheimers Disease - 1266 Words

An Exploration of one of the Most Mysterious Diseases nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Alzheimer’s disease, named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer, is a disease that is on the rise in America and the rest of the world. People should learn as much as they want about this disease, because as you age, your chances of becoming an Alzheimer’s Disease, or AD, patient increases. It is estimated that approximately 3 percent of Americans between the ages of 65 and 74 have the illness, and more than half of all people over age 85 have the ailment. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;AD is a form of dementia, a disease, that according to the Alzheimers Disease Education amp; Referral Center is defined as: â€Å"†¦a group of symptoms that are caused by changes in†¦show more content†¦Since AD is a human disease, animal subjects are also unavailable to use for examination of the sickness, but they can be genetically engineered to have mutant genes that cause them to have amyloid plaques, and, although they do not obtain AD or nerve failure, because they do not have neurofibrillary tangles, they do show memory and learning problems as they grow older. There are ways to put the blame of AD-like symptoms on other problems, like a stroke or brain tumor, and that is by using Computerized Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. (Know respectfully as CT and MRI) These brain imaging devices are useful, yet they still cannot identify plaques and tangles. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The symptoms of AD are caused by the plaque tangles in the parts of the brain are known as hippocampus and the cerebral cortex, which both manage memory, language, and mental processing. The frontal cortex also is affected. This is what, in the normal brain, causes one to daydream. Other parts of the brain that have been affected include the cortical and sub-cortical regions, which have been linked to the control of happiness and euphoria, and are affected when one uses drugs that alter these senses, such as marijuana. Also, those people who are constantly under negative stress are likely to develop memory loss, if they are fortunate and don’t get AD as well. For this reason, as stated later inShow MoreRelatedAlzheimers Disease1334 Words   |  6 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Brittany Mathis HCS/245 July 14,2013 Tynan Weed Abstract Alzheimer’s has many causes and affects each patient differently. There have been studies done that have found that older African American’s are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s than older whites. A cause of Alzheimer’s has not been completely identified yet, but genetic and environmental factors are known to increase the risk. While we all know that Alzheimer’s is a complicated disease there areRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1421 Words   |  6 Pagesengulfed by a mysterious disease. The neurons being cut off and destroyed by two abnormal structures. First memory is affected gradually getting worse. Then one is unable to think properly, reason, and lacks of self control. Gaps are formed in the brain s ventricles, due to the amount of dead tissue. In the end, it will lead to death. All of this may sound like something from a science fiction movie but infact its very real. These are all known possible symptoms of a common disease that affects aboutRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease And Disease935 Words   |  4 Pageswith Alzheimer’s disease. This disease is commonly found in the elderly. This explains why people assume older people have a bad memory. Alzheimer’s does not occur in a short period of time, it typically takes months to develop. It involves gradual memory loss due to two specific protein fragments that spread to different parts of the brain killing brain cells as they go. As mentioned in the article Alzheimer’s Disease Fact Sheet (2015), Dr. Alois Alzheimer first discovered the disease by noticing somethingRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1304 Words   |  6 Pagesperson knows well, or asking questions continuously can be signs of a more serious problem. It is a disease of the brain that started slowly and gets worse as the time progresses. Alzheimer’s is a progressive destroying of brain tissue that primarily strikes people over the age of 65. Brain functions such as memory, comprehension, and speech deteriorate. The term first introduced by Dr. Alois Alzheimers in 1906. Memory is lost first. As days passes, attention tends to distracted, simple calculationsRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1677 Words   |  7 Pagesone thing Alzheimer s cannot take away, and that is love. Love is not a memory - it s a feeling that resides in your heart and soul.† (Fade to Blank). The human brain is a remarkably complex organ that processes, stores, and recalls information. â€Å"Alzheimer s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. 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Alzheimer’s is a disease that many individuals suffer with each year, but yet with all the advancements in modern medicine we still have no cure for it. There are differentRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1385 Words   |  6 PagesThe disease stem cells could fix is called Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The reason I chose this topic is because I have seen first hand how badly someone who suffers from Alzheimer’s Disease is affected in their daily lives. This disease completely takes over their lives and they turn into a completely different person who can hardly function. AD is very tough on the loved ones of the person suffering from it because that person, most of the time has no idea what is going on or who their loved onesRead More Alzheimers Disease Essay1174 Words   |  5 Pages Alzheimer 1 nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;It is inevitable that eventually each of us will grow old and begin to face more and more health problems as our age rises. Elderly people are challenged by many illnesses and diseases that unfortunately, are incurable. One disease that becomes more common as people age is Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s a common cause and a form of dementia and can severely damage a patient’s cognitive functions and can ultimately cause death. Living with Alzheimer’s diseaseRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : A Disease1304 Words   |  6 Pages10, 2015 Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s is a disease in the brain that affects a person’s memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common form of dementia and is common in adults older than 65. More than five million Americans are being affected by Alzheimer’s at this moment. Alzheimer’s comes in three stages; early, middle, and advanced. The disease is caused by the shrinking of the brain due to many risk factors and genetics. Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are often confused because